Almost all the daily wage earners are migrants, i.e. the higher the urbanisation, the higher is the population. Urban Occupations. 12 th. There is space crunch, low lighting and poor ventilation in such factories. What are the various ways of earning a livelihood in urban areas? Some of the private companies are quite big. This document is highly rated by Class 6 students and has been viewed 14106 times. IJSW, 71(3), 387–415, July 2010 A Comparative Study of Livelihood Strategies in Rural and Urban Assam 389 False. A service provider does not sell any goods. The workers get salary on a regular basis. This results in problems for pedestrians and vehicles. Working in Call Centres is a new form of employment in big cities. They are independent to run their shows as they like. get started Get ready for all-new Live Classes! If they protest in respect of working conditions or wages, they are dismissed from the job. One worker for the first 12 hours, another for the next 12 hours on the same machine. 10 th. clerk and urban planner are occupations. For example, shopkeepers and businessmen. 6 th. They either use a pushcart or spread their wares on the pavement. His job is to stitch cloths. Who are self-employed people? In a survey of ________ city, it was found that 12 percent of all the workers in the city were working on the street. It has attracted a large number of young men and women. According to a survey, 12% of all the workers in the city of Ahmedabad work on the streets. They get regular salary and enjoy other benefits of job like savings for old age, holidays, medical facilities, etc. State Urban Livelihoods Mission - Bihar 7th Floor, Indira Bhawan,Ram Charitra Singh Path,Bailey Road (Near Pant Bhawan), Patna, Bihar - 800001 Email id: email@example.com Helpline Numbers A dentist falls in the category of ________ sector. In the 1963 Nigeria census, an urban area was simply defined as one with a ... persons or less whose occupations are mainly agrarian. 4 occupations in the urban areas for livelihood Get the answers you need, now! City: A city is defined as a place where the main occupation of people is not agriculture. The general literature on urban livelihoods, although limited in comparison to rural livelihood studies, ... Sharma, 2011) than to increase productivity. Contextualising Urban Livelihoods: Street Vending in India - Abhayraj Naik* The Politics of Occupying Public Space Unprecedentedly in the history of urban political expression, the Edinburgh City Council on 24th November, 2011 formally voted to recognise the Occupation of … The worker in the garment factory works on a sewing machine. Additional occupations include urologist, U.S. Several people also travel from rural to urban areas in search of work. A number of people earn their livelihood by pulling a rickshaw. In case of big shops, you will find many employees. Another special feature is that there may be no permanent shop for them to carry out their occupation. Give examples. The population of a village can only be in thousands, while the population of a city is in hundred thousand. Some of them work for the Central Government, while some others work for the State Government. They work on their own. There are many levels in the government service. Which authority issues licence to the permanent shops to do business? Some examples are those of vegetable vendors, ice-cream sellers, cobblers, rickshaw pullers, etc. Stories of Liverpool: 1788 – 1900 , exhibition label Liverpool Regional Museum. Another special feature is that there may be no permanent shop for them to carry out their occupation. (i) Agriculture and mining are a few examples of, (iv) Certain parts of the city are banned for. Big Landlords:A very small number of farmers are big landlords. What are the benefits of regular and permanent workers? Urban Occupations: The third direction of occupational mobility is toward urban occupations or rural-urban occupations. • Livelihood activities demonstrate that rural and urban links are strong. big landlords, small farmers and landless farmers. These people employ a number of workers as supervisors and helpers for their showrooms. Three peri-urban communities within 20 km radius from the city were purposively selected to represent peri-urban Kumasi. trade, commerce or service industry. Some are doing the work of a cobbler while some are barbers busy with their work. 5 th. Jan 11, 2021 - Chapter Notes - Urban Livelihoods Class 6 Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of Class 6. they have come from far flung areas in search of job. The SL framework is applicable to both rural and urban survival strategies. Most of these workers are self-employed and work on streets selling goods, repairing items or providing services. ________ is a centralised office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc. How many percentages of people work on the streets of Ahmedabad? The selection was based on the co-existence of rural and urban livelihoods, proximity to Kumasi and the fact that these are places where multiple livelihood types are evolving in response to the effects of urbanisation. Some live and sell their … Rural Urban Livelihoods drawn from crop cultivation, livestock, forestry or fishing (i.e. 9 th. Concerning employment, agriculture employment has declined largely due to … There are many service providers in the city. Broese, F 1998, Island Nation: Australia’s Maritime Heritage , Sydney. Types of Livelihoods 1] Urban Livelihood of Street Workers. Urban - Livelihood & Community Development Millions of people in India exist in desperate poverty, without access to basic amenities like clean water, sanitation and adequate shelter. urban livelihood in street workers:-In towns and cities, it is easy to spot many people working in the streets. This means that the worker is assured of retaining his/her job till the time of retirement. Officers make the top tier of government servants. You will a variety of shops in cities; selling different kinds of items. Some of the occupations in a city are as follows: People who work for the government are called government servants. During lean seasons, the worker may be jobless. National Urban Livelihoods Mission : Mission Document 1.5 Urban poverty being multi-dimensional, various vulnerabilities faced by the poor in cities and towns: occupational, residential and social need to be addressed simultaneously in a comprehensive and integrated manner with a targeted focus on the vulnerable groups so that a make the bottom level of government service. In many cities, you will find a labour chowk. Vendors are also seen here and there selling household articles. Customize your course in 30 seconds Which class are you in? Some examples are those of vegetable vendors, ice-cream sellers, cobblers, rickshaw pullers, etc. Urban options are mostly in the secondary (industrial and manufacturing) and tertiary (service and trade) sectors. Urban people are engaged in non-agricultural work, i.e. Working conditions in most of such factories is horrible. Most of them get paid according to the amount of work done by them. In urban areas, showrooms of different items can be seen. Urban Livelihoods / 79 Like Bachchu Manjhi a large number of people in the city work on the streets. In cities, a major part of the people is self-employed who run their own business and shops. Umpire, undercover agent, undertaker, underwriter, union organizer, U.P.S. But a vendor’s life can be very difficult. But there are also people who do office work with full job security. In contrast, the primary occupation of rural people is agriculture and animal husbandry. This is because the occupation is considered part of development policies for food security and poverty alleviation (Bavinck & Johnson, 2008; FAO, 2015). Next. In case of a small shop, the owner and his family members do most of the tasks. The worker in the garment factory gets job when there is demand for work. They also rent out their farm equipments; like tractors and threshers to other farmers. Peons, drivers, cooks, gardeners, etc. Heritage Office & Dept of Urban Affairs & Planning 1996, Regional Histories of NSW, Sydney. Vendors also create a nuisance by blocking footpaths and roads. They are not employed by anyone The high house rent and cost of living takes away most of their earnings. are examples of services. A city usually depends on villages for farm produce. People in urban areas are engaged in a variety of activities in order to earn their living. Join courses with the best schedule and … 8 th. Moreover, the worker does not get social security benefits; like pension, medical benefits or leave. The government is thinking about modifying the law that banned street vendors, so that they have a place to work and that there is also a free flow of traffic and people. He works 12 hours every day. They may load and unload a truck. They sometimes sell things or repair them or provide a service. City: A city is defined as a place where the main occupation of people is not agriculture. The working conditions of the workers in factories are as follow: They have to work in the day and night shifts on the machines. The sell surplus produces in the market. Rural Livelihoods. There can be an endless list of occupations in a city. Some shops are big, while some others are small. A number of people earn their livelihood by pulling a rickshaw. In urban areas, non-agricultural households are rapidly growing. The secondary occupation includes banking, transport, teaching, etc. Everyone has the right to livelihood and so do the vendors. What works are they engaged in? By urban occupations I mean those for which a person commutes to the town daily and depends for income on the town only, e.g., the jobs of secretary or clerk, bus conductor, peon, and industrial worker. Permanent Workers Vs Casual Workers: People who work as permanent workers (either for the government or for private companies) usually get good salary and secure job. They own a major portion of farmland in a village. Their work is clearly identified. They go there in the hope of finding some work. areas. They also get various other benefits; apart from the salary. These showrooms are run by business persons. Many big farmers also carry out related businesses; like flour mill, shops for fertilizers and seeds. The government is trying to mark some areas especially for vendors. 17. Ensuring Rural and Urban Livelihoods The dispersed, unorganized and often household- based micro and small enterprises are capital-saving, labour-intensive, and environment-friendly tools of inclusion. All the saving is sent back to their home to support their families. What Is The Occupation Of People In Urban Livelihoods? A city is a much bigger place than a village. These workers are self- employed people. Why is the government considering a relaxation of laws concerning street vendors? Casual workers can complain about their pay or working conditions. In towns and cities, it is easy to spot many people working in the streets. A large number of workforce works as casual worker in numerous private companies and in factories. MCQ Questions for Class 6 Civics: Ch 9 Urban Livelihoods 26 Sept, 2020 MCQ Questions for Class 6 Civics: Ch 9 Urban Livelihoods. Now-a-days, some big companies have also opened a chain of shops throughout the country. Urban means city and livelihood means a set of economic activities and the means of securing basic necessities like food clothing and shelter.Therefore Urban livelihood means the ways in which the people in urban areas earn their livelihood.like some people work in offices,some work in shops and factories to earn their livelihood. As per convention, and eight-hour work day is normal in most of the countries. Coupe, S & Andrews, M 1992, Their Ghosts may be heard: Australia to 1900 , Longman Cheshire, Sydney. They may opt for some cleaning job or some digging job. The orders and payments from the shopkeepers are given to the ________. Describe the working conditions of the workers in factories. Care is also being taken to prevent conflicts between vendors and general public. Most of the daily wage earners fail to find work on most of the days in a given year. So, a longer workday must be tiring for the worker. They are not well-treated. Farmers in rural India can be divided into three categories, viz. They may help a mason at construction site. The transformation of raw materials into finished goods is called secondary occupations. Primary (Agriculture, Mining, Forestry, Fishing, Cattle raising) Secondary (Textiles & Iron and steel industries, Minerals) Tertiary (Banking, Railways, Post office, Teaching) Population of some big cities can be in millions; like population of Delhi or Mumbai. The service providers offer different types of services to their customers. Very few people in the city know each other but each worker works in a way that it makes the life of others somewhat easier. If the worker complains of working conditions, he may be asked to leave the job. In our country main occupation of people is (a) Servicing (b) Manufacturing (c) Agriculture (d) Construction (c) Agriculture. Benefits of Government Job: The job in the government service is permanent. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Choice Of Livelihood Activities Among Rural Dwellers In Southeast Nigeria 1 Ifeanyi-obi, C.C and 2 ... 5,000 persons is a rural area. Several urban people are engaged in factories where they work for long hours. Overcrowding and environmental degradation make the urban poor particul (i) - (d), (ii) - (c), (iii) - (b), (iv) - (a). They are either self-employed or work for someone. Big farmer… Vendors often have to wind up their shops when police asks them to do so. People who have their own business are self-employed. The officers are assisted by a huge number of clerks. These assets play an important role in survival strategies both in rural and urban livelihoods. In India, they are the largest source of employment after agriculture and are found in both rural as well as urban areas. Thus, we see that with a growing population, job opportunities have also increased and people are availing these opportunities according to their talent and aptitude. Some are doing the work of a cobbler while some are barbers busy with their work. Jobs in private companies have more or less similar benefits as in government jobs. 2.2.1 Human Capital What are the duties performed by Sudha works as a Marketing Manager? Vendors are also seen here and there selling household articles. 2.4 Urban Design Ideologies and the Evolving Nature of Public Spaces 12 2.41 The City Improvement and City Beautiful Movements 12 2.42 The Garden City Movement 12 2.43 The Myth of Architect as God Period 13 2.44 The New Urbanism Movement 15 2.5 The … 11 th. While it is difficult to explain each and every occupation in a city, some generalizations can be made. Livelihood options in the urban areas are often regular, skilled, highly specialized, organized, formal, flexible, industrial and economically more productive than those in the rural areas. The number of daily wage earners is even higher. These workers are self- employed people. People in urban areas earn their living in various ways. Most of the shops are owned by individuals. People who do not have a permanent shop are called vendors. Their income is dependent on the hard work they put in. Hair cutting, courier service, tuition classes, chartered accountancy, healthcare, etc. Most of the people who do not have any skill have to work as daily wage earners. Discuss. • Agriculture an important income source but rarely do rural households rely only on one ‘occupation’. key for livelihood is access to natural capital) Access to land for housin g and building materials not generally a problem More distant from government as regulator and provider of services Access to infrastructure and services limited (largely because of distance, low density and limited capacity to pay?) The government is working on this issue. In a survey of Ahmedabad city it was found that 12 per cent of all the workers in the city were people working on the street. So, many people protest at vendors occupying the roadsides. Population wise, urban areas are densely populated, which is based on the urbanisation, i.e. People in urban areas are engaged in a variety of activities in order to earn their living. Everyday experiences of street vendors in Mumbai, India The research on street vendors in Mumbai ((OBU-Research Paper-Informal Economy) had shown the opportunities of income generation and livelihood improvement of the urban poor through self-employment which is informal in nature. References & Definitions. unorganised sector occupations in urban areas can be divided into three groups: (i) self employed, (ii) regular worker, and (iii) casual labour. Which among the following is a big city where more than a million people live? This is the area where labourers converge early in the morning. They don't have job security still they continue to do their work because they don't have other options. They get a regular salary. Urban Livelihoods. 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